Home' Independence : Independence Vol 38 No 2 Oct 2013 Contents 8 INDEPENDENCE VOL 38 NO 2 OCTOBER 2013
Former AHISA member and consultant Eric Bernard shows how
leadership profiling used by successful business leaders could be
applied in schools to prepare students for the future.
If we compare the three Cs with
the traditional three Rs of reading,
(w)riting and (a)rithmetic, or
even with the more contemporary
three Rs of rigour, relevance and
relationship, we can observe a
significant difference in emphasis.
The traditional version of the three Rs
focuses on skills development, while the
contemporary version of the three Rs
places the emphasis on an approach to
learning. In contrast, the three Cs can
be seen as a development of the whole
person: not just what they learn, nor how
they learn, but who they are and what
they have to give and use.
We can engage in reading, writing and
arithmetic without a strong sense of
personal growth and development, only
skills development. Similarly, we can
make learning rigorous and relevant
in the context of relationships without
focusing on personal growth. However,
to learn creativity, collaboration and
character building we need to operate
at a deeper personal level. At this level,
schools must help students to develop
their personal qualities as well as their
skills. The focus is on who the students
are and who they can be, not on what
they can do and how to achieve it.
MANY are considering what shape
education should take in the future, and
there is no shortage of suggestions. A
Google search of '21st century skills' will
deliver 18 million results in less time
than it takes to read this paragraph.
As Australia enters the 'education race
with Asia' (Franklin 2012) and seeks
to enshrine in legislation its goal to
dominate PISA rankings (Australian
Government 2012), it is interesting to
note that our supposed Asian competitors
are seeking to augment literacy skills
with something broader and deeper.
South Korea, for example, is focusing on
creativity, collaboration and character
building (Pearson 2012).
South Korea's three Cs are not
radical; others have proposed the
four Cs of creativity, critical thinking,
communication and collaboration
(Fadel 2012), some adding a fifth
in character (Martin 2010).
Taking a minimalist approach, an
examination of the three Cs of creativity,
collaboration and character development
reveals just where we might expect
future classrooms to diverge from the
traditional approach to school education.
CURRICULUM ERIC BERNARD
To educate people so that their
experience embraces the ideals of
creativity, collaboration and character
building means involving them in
a personal journey of self-discovery
and consciousness. This will involve
engagement in the learning processes
reaching far beyond the skill
development phase into the arena of
conscious awareness; that is, recognising
individual behaviours and the behaviours
of others and responding appropriately,
and recognising the degree to which self-
concept and inner motivation come from
within or are determined by external
expectations, rules or conditions.
This does not mean we ignore either
version of the three Rs. They will of
course continue to be incorporated in the
learning process, but the three Cs will
become central to the learning process.
An approach to education that embraces
past, present and future paradigms is set
out in the accompanying diagram.
Competencies and tendencies
To explore this concept further,
we need a deeper understanding
of what is meant by creativity,
collaboration and character building.
In considering creativity, we need to
remove the idea that there are creative
disciplines and non-creative disciplines.
Scientists and mathematicians engage
in very creative activities in solving
problems and thinking through solutions,
just as the poet, artist, musician or
novelist does. In addition to new ideas
and ways of thinking, creativity may
involve routine processes that require
creative thought to recognise the need
to use the process, or it may involve a
deeper level of thinking along familiar
To put creativity in a broader framework
it can be helpful to view human
interaction as (1) creative competencies
and (2) reactive tendencies. These are
human dimensions that drive behaviour
and thought. Each represents human
capability and capacity and describes
the internal and external patterns of
behaviour underlying motivations.
Both are also leadership domains and
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